The department of Cerro Largo is located within the eastern area of Uruguay, and borders with Brazil to the east, with the departments of Rivera and Tacuarembó to the north, the department of Treinta y Tres to the south, and with the department of Durazno to the west. It has an area of about 13.648 km2 and a population of approximately 89.565 inhabitants.
The capital city of Cerro Largo is Melo, located at the centre of the department, at about 390 kilometers from Montevideo and at 60 kilometers from the border with Brazil. This city was founded in June of 1795 and has a population of about 50.580 inhabitants.
The inhabitants of Cerro Largo are called Arachanes or Cerrolarguenses. The name Arachanes is in honor to the indigenous people who used to inhabit this area of Uruguay and who were known after that name. Arachanes tribes used to live in the east and northeast region of this area of the country.
The economy of Cerro Largo is based on livestock related activities. Also, fishing, clay, forestry, and agriculture are important sources of income for this department as well.