The department of Treinta Y Tres is located towards the eastern area of Uruguay, bordering with the departments of Durazno and Florida to the west, with Brazil through the Laguna Merin to the east, with the department of Rocha and Lavalleja to the south, and with the department of Cerro Largo to the north.
The capital of Treinta y Tres is the city of same name, located on the southern area of the department. Treinta y Tres has a total of about 49.320 inhabitants, 25.711 of whom live in the capital. Other important cities or towns in this department are: Ejido de Treinta y Tres, Vergara, and Cerro Chato, among others.
This department has an area of approximately 9.529 km2 and a population density of about 5,2 inhabitants per km2. The inhabitants of this department are called Olimareños.
This department is named after the Treinta y Tres Orientales, a group of men lead by Lavalleja who disembarked in this area in pursue of recovering the independence of the Provincia Oriental which was then ruled by the Portuguese.
The economy of Treinta y Tres is based on cattle farming and related activities as well as in the cultivation of rice. This department is also becoming an important producer of pre-cooked food.